Attention Deficit Disorder ADD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder belong to a spectrum of neurological disorders with no known physiological basis – or so it was thought.
The spectrum goes from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) through Learning Disabilities, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Tourette’s Syndrome, to Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Autism.
Autistic traits – Von Economo Neurons (VENs)
Von Economo Neurons (VENs) were described in detail by von Economo in 1925. They then disappeared into obscurity until Esther Nimchinsky et al described them again in 1995 at which time they were known as spindle cells. Since that time a number of papers have been published on the limited number of species that have them – great apes, certain whales and dolphins, elephants and humans – their structure and their possible functions.
We can view dyslexia as a unique collection of learning difficulties which are specific to the individual and in itself due to varying degrees of immaturity or under functioning of specific areas of the nervous system.
Over the past few years we have all become familiar with the term Dyslexia but increasingly of late a new term “Dyspraxia” has cropped up and more and more children would appear to suffer from it.
Dyspraxia, sometimes in the past called the “clumsy child syndrome” is an umbrella term used to describe children who share similar symptoms but whose aetiology (cause) is variable.
Tourette’s Syndrome of Childhood and OCD
Blinking, grimacing and minor tics are so common in childhood as to be considered a normal developmental stage that many children will pass through and hopefully grow out of. Like dyslexia, dyspraxia, ADD, ADHD and OCD, Tourette’s syndrome of childhood never appears in isolation but forms just one of the signs and symptoms of developmental delay.
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